The cornea is the transparent, curved front part of the eye which focuses light, protects the eye against external factors and plays a major role in vision.
Corneal Examination Methods
A person who is not an ophthalmologist can use localized light to evaluate corneal transparency, the brightness of its surface and corneal injuries; and a cotton swab to evaluate corneal sensitivity. Ophthalmologists use some devices to assess corneal morphology and function.
Biomicroscopy: It is used for binocular examination of the cornea and other structures of the anterior segment. Light beams of varying thicknesses are directed from different angles for magnification of the biomicroscope and the cornea can be examined. This is the most common examination method that is used routinely.
Keratometry: Measurement of the cornea's refractive power. It is used before contact lens and intraocular lens placement.
Topography: It is used for the topographic analysis of the corneal surface.
Pachymetry: Measurement of the corneal thickness.
Specular microscopy: Shows the number and structure of endothelial cells.
Esthesiometry: It is used to assess corneal sensitivity.
Corneal staining: The defects on the corneal surface can be seen through fluorescein and rose bengal staining.

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